9. What characterized Jewish biblical interpretation in the period you have studied?

Illustrate your answer from at least two of the following: (1) Qumran, (2) Philo, (3) Josephus, (4) ancient Bible versions, (5)  early rabbinic interpretation 
  • Amir, Yehoshua. 1988. “Authority and Interpretation of Scripture in the Writings of Philo.” In Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading & Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism & Early Christianity 421-53. Ed. M. J. Mulder and H. Sysling. Assen/Philadelphia: van Gorcum/Fortress.
  • Bernstein, Moshe J. 2004. “The Contribution of the Qumran Discoveries to the History of Early Biblical Interpretation.” In The Idea of Biblical Interpretation: Essays in Honor of James L. Kugel 215-38. Ed. H. Najman and J. H. Newman. JSJSup 83. Leiden/Boston: Brill.
  • Borgen, Peder. 1997. Philo of Alexandria: An Exegete for his Time. NovTSup 86. Leiden/New York: Brill.
  • Brooke, George J. 2000. “Pesharim.” DNTB: 778-82.
  • Charlesworth, James H. and Craig A. Evans, eds. 1993. The Pseudepigrapha and Early Biblical Interpretation. JSPSup. Sheffield: JSOT Press.
  • Dohrmann, Natalie B. and David Stern, eds. 2008. Jewish Biblical Interpretation and Cultural Exchange: Comparative Exegesis in Context. Jewish Culture and Contexts. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Feldman, Louis H. 1988. “Use, Authority and Exegesis of Mikra in the Writings of Josephus ” In Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading & Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism & Early Christianity 455-518. Ed. M. J. Mulder and H. Sysling. Assen/Philadelphia: van Gorcum/Fortress.
  • Fishbane, Michael A. 1985. Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel. Oxford: Clarendon.
  • Fishbane, Michael A. and Joanna Weinberg, eds. 2013. Midrash Unbound: Transformations and Innovations. Oxford: The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization.
  • Fraade, Steven D. 2007. “Rabbinic Midrash and Ancient Jewish Biblical Interpretation.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature 99-120. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kalimi, Isaac and Peter J. Haas. 2006. Biblical Interpretation in Judaism and Christianity. New York/London: T & T Clark.
  • Kamesar, Adam. 2009. “Biblical Interpretation in Philo.” In The Cambridge Companion to Philo 65-94. Ed. A. Kamesar. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kugel, James L. 1986. Early Biblical Interpretation. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
  • Lim, Timothy H. 2013. The Formation of the Jewish Canon. The Anchor Yale Bible Reference Library. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Najman, Hindy. 2012. “The Vitality of Scripture Within and Beyond the ‘Canon’.” Journal for the Study of Judaism 43: 497-518.
  •  Neusner, Jacob and Alan J. Avery-Peck, eds. 2004. Encyclopedia of Midrash: Biblical Interpretation in Formative Judaism. Leiden/Boston: Brill.
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