Is it possible to say when and why Christianity became separate from Judaism?

Answer with reference to select primary sources from both the New Testament and the second century. You may also wish to highlight a particular geographic location (e.g. Antioch or Rome).


  • Bar Asher Sigal, Mikhal. 2018. “Minim Stories and Jewish-Christian Debates over Scripture : Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 102b.” Jewish Studies Quarterly 25: 221-38. 
  • Baron, Lori et al., eds. 2018. The Ways That Often Parted: Essays in Honor of Joel Marcus. Early Christianity and its Literature 24. Atlanta: SBL Press.
  • Becker, Adam H. and Annette Yoshiko Reed, eds. 2003. The Ways That Never Parted: Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
  • Binder, Stephanie E. 2012. Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah ‘Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews. Leiden/Boston: Brill.
  • Boyarin, Daniel. 2004. Border Lines: The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Boyarin, Daniel. 2009. “Rethinking Jewish Christianity: An Argument for Dismantling a Dubious Category (to which is Appended a Correction of my Border Lines).” Jewish Quarterly Review 99: 7-36.
  • Dunn, James D. G. 2006. The Parting of the Ways Between Christianity and Judaism and Their Significance for the Character of Christianity. 2nd edn. London: SCM.
  • Heemstra, Marius. 2010. The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
  • Hicks-Keeton, Jill. 2018. “Aseneth between Judaism and Christianity: Reframing the Debate.” Journal for the Study of Judaism 49: 189-222.
  • Nicklas, Tobias. 2014. Jews and Christians? Second-Century ‘Christian’ Perspectives on the ‘Parting of the Ways’ (Annual Deichmann Lectures 2013). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
  • Robinson, Thomas A. 2009. Ignatius of Antioch and the Parting of the Ways: Early Jewish-Christian Relations. Peabody: Hendrickson.
  • Roukema, Riemer and Hagit Amirav, eds. 2018. The “New Testament” as a Polemical Tool: Studies in Ancient Christian Anti-Jewish Rhetoric and Beliefs. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
  • Skarsaune, Oskar and Reidar Hvalvik, eds. 2007. Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers.
  • Smith, Eric C. 2017. Jewish Glass and Christian Stone: A Materialist Mapping of the ‘Parting of the Ways’. New York/Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Spence, Stephen. 2004. The Parting of the Ways: The Roman Church as a Case Study. Interdisciplinary Studies in Ancient Culture and Religion 5. Leuven: Peeters.
  • Stökl Ben Ezra, Daniel. 2009. “Weighting the Parts: A Papyrological Perspective on the Parting of the Ways.” Novum Testamentum 51: 168-86.

rev 12/2019